• To understand the basic hardware and software issues of computer organizationTo provide an overview on the design principles of digital computing systems 
  • To understand the representation of data at machine level
  • To understand how computations are performed at machine level



  • Ability to analyze the abstraction of various components of a computer
  • Ability to analyze the hardware and software issues and the interfacing
  • Ability to work out the tradeoffs involved in designing a modern computer system


Unit – I

Introduction, Technologies for building Processors and Memory, Performance, The Power Wall, Operations of the Computer Hardware, Operands Signed and Unsigned numbers, Representing Instructions, Logical Operations, Instructions for Making Decisions


Unit – II

MIPS Addressing for 32-Bit Immediates and Addresses, Parallelism and Instructions: Synchronization, Translating and Starting a Program, Addition and Subtraction, Multiplication, Division, Floating Point, Parallelism and Computer Arithmetic: Subword Parallelissm, Streaming SIMD Extensions and Advanced Vector Extensions in x86.


Unit – III

Logic Design Conventions, Building a Datapath, A Simple Implementation Scheme, overview of Pipelining, Pipelined Datapath, Data Hazards: Forwarding versus Stalling, Control Hazards, Exceptions, Parallelism via Instructions, The ARM Cortex – A8 and Intel Core i7 Pipelines, Instruction –Level Parallelism and Matrix Multiply Hardware Design language


Unit – IV

Memory Technologies, Basics of Caches, Measuring and Improving Cache Performance, dependable memory hierarchy, Virtual Machines, Virtual Memory, Using FSM to Control a Simple Cache, Parallelism and Memory Hierarchy: Redundant Arrays of Inexpensive Disks, Advanced Material: Implementing Cache Controllers


Unit – V

Disk Storage and Dependability, RAID levels, performance of storage systems, Introduction to multi threading clusters, message passing multiprocessors.



  • David A. Patterson and John L. Hennessey, “Computer organization and design, The Hardware/Software interface”, Morgan Kauffman / Elsevier, Fifth edition, 2014


  • V. Carl Hamacher, Zvonko G. Varanesic, and Safat G. Zaky, “Computer Organization“, 6 th edition, McGraw-Hill Inc, 2012.

  • William Stallings, “Computer Organization and Architecture”, 8 th Edition, Pearson Education, 2010