Analog Instruments - Permanent Magnet Moving Coil and Moving Iron meters – Extension in range for Ammeter and Voltmeter - Measurement of Power and Energy.

Measurements, Instrumentation, Errors in Measurements, Calibration and Standard, Classification and Characteristics of transducers, digital, electrical, Electronic weighing and their Application, Sensors and its different types.

A.F. Generator, Pulse Generator, AM/FM Signal Generator, Function Generator, Sweep Frequency Generator, Wave Analyzer, Spectrum Analyzer, Logic Analyzers, Distortion Analyzers.

Digital voltmeter and Multimeters, Automation in voltmeter, Accuracy of DVM, Guarding Techniques, frequency, period, time interval and pulse width measurements, Automatic vector voltmeter.

CRO, Analog and Digital storage Oscilloscope, Digital Phosphor Oscilloscopes, Analog & Digital Recorders and Printers.


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5. MMS Anand, “Electronic Instruments and Instrumentation Technology”, Prentice Hall of India, 2005.