# MT207

# Metallurgical Thermodynamics

**OBJECTIVES:** To understand the basic principles of Metallurgical Thermodynamics and carryout numerical calculations involving these principles.

## First Law and its applications

Types of system, state of a system, state properties - First law of thermodynamics; heat of reaction, heat of formation, standard heats, heat of transition; Hess’s law of heat summation

## Second law and its applications

Second law, entropy of irreversible processes,combined statements of 1st and 2nd laws - Maxwell's relations, Clausius - Clapeyron equation, Trouton’s rule, Gibb's - Helmholtz relations

## Third Law

Third law of thermodynamics, relation between CP and CV, Nernst heat theorem, equilibrium constant, Van't Hoff equation, concept of fugacity, activity, mole fraction

## Thermodynamics of Solutions

Thermodynamics of solutions, Gibb's Duhem equation, partial molar properties of mixing, concept of chemical potential, ideal solution, Raoult's law,Henry's law; non ideal solution, excess functions, regular solutions.

## Sievert's law and slags in Metallurgy Gases in metals

Sievert's law - residual gases in steel –properties and functions of slags, slag compositions, structure of molten slags, molecular theory, concept of basicity index, ionic theory; thermodynamics of slag-metal reactions.

## Textbooks:

1.*Tupkary R.H., ‘Introduction to Metallurgical Thermodynamics’, 1*^{st }Edition, TU Publishers, Nagpur, 1995.

*2.Upadhyaya G.S., Dube R.K., ‘Problems in Metallurgical Thermodynamics and Kinetics’, 1*^{st }Edition, Pergamon Press, 1977.

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*Numerical problems on the concepts mentioned in all the above units.*