Metallurgical Thermodynamics

OBJECTIVES: To understand the basic principles of Metallurgical Thermodynamics and carryout numerical calculations involving these principles.

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First Law and its applications

Types of system, state of a system, state properties - First law of thermodynamics; heat of reaction, heat of formation, standard heats, heat of transition; Hess’s law of heat summation

Second law and its applications

Second law, entropy of irreversible processes,combined statements of 1st and 2nd laws - Maxwell's relations, Clausius - Clapeyron equation, Trouton’s rule, Gibb's - Helmholtz relations

Third Law

Third law of thermodynamics, relation between CP and CV, Nernst heat theorem, equilibrium constant, Van't Hoff equation, concept of fugacity, activity, mole fraction

Thermodynamics of Solutions

Thermodynamics of solutions, Gibb's Duhem equation, partial molar properties of mixing, concept of chemical potential, ideal solution, Raoult's law,Henry's law; non ideal solution, excess functions, regular solutions.

Sievert's law and slags in Metallurgy Gases in metals

Sievert's law - residual gases in steel –properties and functions of slags, slag compositions, structure of molten slags, molecular theory, concept of basicity index, ionic theory; thermodynamics of slag-metal reactions.


1.Tupkary R.H., ‘Introduction to Metallurgical Thermodynamics’, 1st Edition, TU Publishers, Nagpur, 1995.

2.Upadhyaya G.S., Dube R.K., ‘Problems in Metallurgical Thermodynamics and Kinetics’, 1st Edition, Pergamon Press, 1977.












Numerical problems on the concepts mentioned in all the above units.