Physical Metallurgy

OBJECTIVES: To obtain a sound knowledge in the basic concepts of Physical Metallurgy.

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Crystallography - co-ordination number, effective number of atoms, packing factor, crystal system relevant to metals, indexing of crystal planes and directions in cubic and hexagonal system, linear and planar density, interplanar spacing

Defects in Crystals

Crystal imperfections and its types; point defects, dislocations - unit dislocation, partial dislocation, motion of dislocations, slip and twin crystal orientation, concept of texture, grain and grain boundaries, methods of grain size determination.


Self-diffusion, diffusion in alloy, diffusion mechanisms, activation energy, laws of diffusion- Fick's I law, II law, inter-diffusion and Kirkendall effect, types of diffusion and examples of diffusion; problems based on diffusion

Phase Diagram

Solid solutions and its types and intermediate phases - Hume Rothery's rule - solidification of metals and alloys, cooling curves, concepts of phase diagrams, coring and segregation as applied to various binary systems, ternary systems.

Thermodynamics of Phase Transformations

Thermodynamic properties of binary metallurgical systems, free energy- composition curves and their relation to phase diagrams of different types; ternary phase diagram - Gibbs phase triangle.


1. Reed Hill R.E., ‘Physical Metallurgy Principles’, 2nd Edition, Affiliated East West Press,1973

2.  Derek Hull, ‘Introduction to Dislocations’, Pergamon, 2nd Edition, 1981.

3. Raghavan V., ‘Physical Metallurgy - Principles and Practice’, Prentice - Hall of India,1993

4.Guy A.G., ‘Elements of Physical Metallurgy’, 3rd   Edition, Addison Wesly, 1974.