Numerical aperture, limit of resolution, depth of field and depth of focus - lens defects and correction- bright field and dark field illumination - polarised light, phase contrast, interference contrast, hot-stage, in-situ techniques, quantitative metallography


Powder, rotating crystal and Laue methods, stereographic projections and reciprocal lattice; X-ray residual stress measurement


Construction and operation of TEM - diffraction effects and image formation, specimen preparation techniques; elemental analysis by WDS and EDS systems - construction and operation of SEM - analysis of fractured surfaces


X-ray fluoroscopy, spectrometry, Auger spectroscopy, DTA, DSC and TGA, working principle, applications


Stress analysis by strain gauging, high temperature strain gauge technique, photoelasticity and holography


1.        Smallman  R. E., ‘Modern Physical Metallurgy’, 4th Edition, Butterworths, 1985 

2.        Philips V. A., ‘Modern Metallographic Techniques and their Applications’, Wiley Interscience,1971

3.        Cullity B. D., ‘Elements of X-ray Diffraction’, 4th Edition, Addison Wiley,1978

4.        Loretto M. H., ‘Electron Beam Analysis of Materials’, Chapman and Hall, 1984