SURVEYING - I
- Principles of Surveying - Types of surveying - Conventional signs - Equipment - chains - tapes - Arrows - Ranging rods - ranging and chaining - reciprocal ranging - Overcoming obstacles in chaining – chaining on slope ground, Hypotenuse allowance.
- Prismatic compass - Surveyor's compass - Bearings - systems and conversions - errors in compass surveying - Local attraction – Traverse adjustment – Omitted measurements.
- Plane Table Surveying – instruments and accessories - merits and demerits - methods - radiation - intersection - traverse - resection - three point and two point problems.
- Levels and staff - temporary and permanent adjustments of levels - Differential levelling - fly levelling - profile Levelling - block levelling - booking - reduction of levels - checks - curvature and refraction - Reciprocal levelling - longitudinal and cross sectioning - contours - Automatic levels .
- Vernier Theodolite - Description - temporary and permanent adjustments - two face observation – necessity - measurements of horizontal angles - vertical angles - errors - compensating and cumulative errors - elimination of errors.
- Duggal, S.K. Surveying Vol. I and II, Tata McGraw Hill, 1996. <!--[if !supportLists]-->
- Punmia, B.C. Surveying Vol.I and II, Standard Publishers, 1987
- Arora, K. R. Surveying Vol. I and II, Standard Book House, 1991.