Physical phenomenon occurring in the arc, potential distribution, static and dynamic arc characteristics; types of forces and metal transfer in the arc; arc blow, power source characteristics; volt-ampere relationship and its measurement,


Basic principles, different methods of control of volt-ampere characteristics, operation, volt control, slope control, dual control, resistance welding transformers, welding rectifiers, choice of diode material; use of thyristors, inverters


Alternators and D.C. generators for welding, three brush generator, setting of power source, characteristics of D.C. motors, synchronous motors


Wire-feed system, carriage movement control, crater filling devices, up and down slopes, seam tracking devices, magnetic control of arcs, pulsing techniques, NC and computer controlled welding machines, controls in resistance welding machines


Measurements of welding current, voltage, temperature, load and displacement, X-Y and strip chart recorders. CRO, LVDT, arc welding analyzer, resistance welding monitor


1.        Welding Handbook, Volume 2, 7th   Edition,  American Welding Society

2.        Richardson V.D., ‘Rotating Electric Machinery and Transformer Technology’, Prentice Hall of India, 1978